Mujeres, afectadas por la tributaria

Mujeres, afectadas por la tributaria

El reciente proyecto de reforma tributaria es inconveniente para las mujeres, porque privilegia el aumento de impuestos regresivos como el IVA que grava de manera indirecta productos de la canasta familiar. Estos impuestos afectan a mujeres y hombres de forma diferente, y perjudican principalmente a los hogares con jefatura femenina por estas razones: En Colombia se ha demostrado que los hogares con jefatura femenina tienen una tasa de incidencia de pobreza mayor (31%) que aquellos con masculina (26%); en los centros poblados rurales esta diferencia aún es más grande, los hogares con jefatura femenina tienen una tasa de incidencia de pobreza de (46,5%) mayor a aquella con masculina (38,6%). (DANE, marzo de 2016); los impuestos indirectos como el IVA se aplican a todos de la misma manera, sin tener en cuenta estas diferencias de ingresos entre mujeres y hombres. Paga el mismo impuesto una mujer campesina que un rico empresario en el sector rural; estudios de ONU Mujeres (2016) han demostrado que hay enormes desigualdades de género en los ingresos, los salarios, la titularidad de propiedades, el acceso a servicios y uso del tiempo libre. 

En el mundo, las mujeres en promedio ganan 24% menos que los hombres y tienen menos probabilidades de recibir una pensión. En todas las regiones también las mujeres trabajan más horas, realizan en promedio al menos dos veces y media la cantidad de trabajo doméstico y de cuidados no remunerados que los hombres. Estas diferencias de ingresos y horas de trabajo no remuneradas, no se tienen en cuenta con la aplicación de los denominados impuestos indirectos. (Christian Aid, marzo de 2015). 
La aplicación de iguales impuestos para quienes en la vida cotidiana tienen ingresos desiguales, es a todas luces, regresivo e inequitativo. Hay investigaciones que explican por qué las mujeres tienen menores salarios cuando asumen cargos de igual responsabilidad que los hombres. Hoy las mujeres constituyen más de la mitad del grueso de la población informal, tienen ingresos variables porque entran y salen del mercado laboral en diferentes etapas de la vida, tienen mayores tasas de desempleo, y son quienes asumen mayoritariamente los trabajos dedicados a la asistencia social o los trabajos de cuidado, fundamentales en toda sociedad.

La ampliación de la base gravable del IVA tampoco tiene en cuenta que hay muchos productos de primera necesidad para las mujeres que tienen impuestos más altos. Un estudio con enfoque de género realizado en Nueva York en 2015 reveló que las mujeres pagaban en promedio 7% más por los mismos productos que los hombres. El estudio concluyó que los productos femeninos eran un 42% más costosos. En Colombia, la Red de Género y Justicia Tributaria encontró que también hay una “tasa rosa” en varios productos femeninos como cuchillas de afeitar, desodorantes, vestuario, entre otros. La inequidad también está impresa en los precios de estos productos, lo cual, profundiza la discriminación económica para las mujeres.

Otro punto negativo para las mujeres en la reforma actual tiene que ver con el denominado “monotributo” que unifica el pago del impuesto de renta y el IVA a los pequeños negocios, entre los cuales están las peluquerías y las tiendas de los barrios. Estos negocios que pertenecen mayoritariamente a mujeres con bajos ingresos son castigados y obligados a formalizarse de una manera indebida. Es decir, en vez, de gravar a los grandes empresarios o propietarios, se castiga a las mujeres emprendedoras de pequeños negocios.
Por todos estos motivos, considero que esta reforma castiga principalmente a las mujeres más pobres, a las madres cabeza de hogar, a las mujeres emprendedoras y a las mujeres, madres, hermanas que trabajan más de 13 horas al día en el sector remunerado y no remunerado. En realidad, una reforma tributaria equitativa debería privilegiar más impuestos directos, progresivos sobre quienes sí tienen cómo pagarlos y no castigar a quienes luchan por sobrevivir diariamente. 

Una reforma tributaria que no reconozca las profundas diferencias entre los ingresos de hombres y mujeres representa un retroceso para el reconocimiento, la redistribución y la reducción de las brechas de género que hoy existen. A su vez, castiga indebidamente a quienes se ocupan del trabajo más importante: Sostener el cuidado, la reproducción de la vida y el bienestar de todos y todas en la sociedad.

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