Mesa por la paz

Mesa por la paz

En tiempos oscuros para el mundo y sus decenas de conflictos armados, en nuestro país el nuevo año inicia con buenos augurios para la paz. El pasado 18 de enero, Juan Camilo Restrepo coordinador por el gobierno de la mesa de negociación con el Ejército de Liberación Nacional y Pablo Beltrán, integrante de esta guerrilla, anunciaron desde Quito el inicio de la fase formal de este nuevo proceso de paz para el próximo 7 de febrero.

Han sido casi tres años de ires y venires de esta negociación, tiempo en el cual un amplio número de personas que viven en los territorios donde hoy opera este grupo guerrillero, acompañados por líderes de organizaciones sociales, académicos, sindicalistas, sacerdotes, periodistas, artistas, cooperación internacional y algunos integrantes de las comisiones de paz del Congreso de la República, hemos trabajado activamente en contribuir a concretar los términos de esta nueva negociación, a superar sus obstáculos y de igual manera hemos exigido a las partes generar las condiciones para una paz completa que definitivamente nos permita pasar la página de esta violencia política y transitar hacia una paz estable y transformadora.

Después de coordinar las acciones para que de manera simultánea se produzca la liberación de Odín Sánchez y el reconocimiento como gestores de paz a Juan Carlos Cuéllar y Francisco Martínez, quienes desde la cárcel de Bellavista en Medellín han insistido en la importancia de este proceso con el Eln, parecería que se hace realidad la aspiración de iniciar de una vez por todas este nuevo y anhelado diálogo de paz. Son seis los puntos de la agenda que se abordarán: participación de la sociedad civil en la construcción de la paz que será el eje central del proceso; democracia para la paz, incidencia de la sociedad civil en las decisiones que nos afectan de manera directa y garantías para la protesta social; transformaciones para la paz, desarrollo de programas para superar la pobreza, la exclusión y la corrupción; víctimas, reconocimiento de sus derechos con base en verdad, justicia, reparación, no repetición y no olvido; fin del conflicto armado con garantías para la seguridad de las guerrilleras y guerrilleros y condiciones para el ejercicio de la política y, por último, implementación, un plan general de ejecución que incluya mecanismos de seguimiento y verificación de los acuerdos por parte de la misma sociedad, con apoyo de la comunidad internacional.

Si bien los puntos de la agenda presentan algunos elementos diferentes con respecto a la agenda Gobierno–Farc, es el primer punto, participación de la sociedad civil, el que le imprime una singularidad al proceso. A diferencia de la mesa de La Habana, cerrada, distante y que contó con poca participación, ésta tendrá como su mayor fortaleza y al mismo tiempo su mayor complejidad el promover una significativa participación de colombianos y colombianas, con el propósito de que discusiones y propuestas en el marco de un gran diálogo nacional que se realice en las distintas regiones, se presenten como insumos para enriquecer el debate de la mesa Gobierno-Eln. Serán las nuevas voces ciudadanas quienes contribuirán a romper la bilateralidad de la mesa, lo cual en ocasiones refuerza la díada amigo-enemigo y frena como ocurrió en algunas ocasiones en La Habana la dinámica del proceso.

Desde la convergencia denominada Por Una Paz Completa que lleva años impulsando este proceso, esperamos que dado que existen condiciones para iniciar esta negociación con una tregua bilateral, la cual se traduciría en desescalamiento del conflicto, se puedan acordar pronto mecanismos humanitarios y cese de bombardeos en las zonas donde opera esta guerrilla, lo cual redundaría en la protección de la vida en los territorios de la guerra y en la legitimidad de la negociación.

Si bien se trata de dos procesos de paz diferentes, hay que evaluar los aciertos y fracasos del proceso con las Farc y sacar los saldos pedagógicos que permitan evitar recorrer el camino tortuoso del año 2016, cuando estuvimos en el peligro de echar por la borda lo logrado en cinco años de trabajo para terminar el conflicto armado.

Columna para el periódico La Patria

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